In 1998, 143 million people worldwide had diabetes. And if you believe the forecasts, there will be 300 million patients by 2025.
Diabetes is a chronic condition persists throughout life. The proper management of the disease by the patient himself, with the help of his doctor, should allow to avoid complications. It is responsible for poor states of health and premature death.
what differences between diabetes Type ?
– Type 1 diabetes, insulin dependent (IDDM) diabetes also called “lean” because one of the first symptoms is weight loss, or “juvenile” because it affects young subjects.
– It accounts for about 10% of cases and is treated by insulin mandatory.
– Type 2 diabetes, noninsulin-dependent (NIDDM), also described under the name of “fat” diabetes or adult-onset diabetes, as often occurs in midlife overweight people.
– It accounts for about 90% of cases and is treated by diet, most drugs taken orally if necessary, and possibly insulin, after several years of evolution.
Why this imbalance in sugar at a diabetes?
It is a disorder of assimilation, use and storage of sugars provided by food. During digestion, the foods we eat are processed partly in sugar, essential to fuel the body’s cells to function. Is insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, which regulates the amount of stored or “burned” sugar into cells. After passing through the intestinal wall, the sugar is found in the bloodstream, thereby increasing blood sugar. This signal is detected by specific pancreatic cells (beta islet cells) which then secrete insulin. The presence of insulin in the blood itself is perceived by the liver cells, muscle and fat tissue, which in response begin to consume glucose or store it for future use. Hence a return to normal levels of sugar in the blood.
IN NO DIABETIC PERSON
1 – released from the pancreas, insulin allows glucose uptake by cells. To do this, it binds to a specific receptor on the cell surface activates a protein whose function is glucose transport inwardly.
2 – Via the activated carrier, glucose enters the cell where it is converted into energy.
3 – The blood glucose level (glycemia) thus remains stable.
IN THE DIABETIC PERSON
1 – Insulin is produced in insufficient quantity (type 1 diabete) or can bind to its receptor (type 2 diabete) leaving the inactive carrier
2 – Glucose does not penetrate into the cell and remains in the bloodstream. Glucose is not regulated.
Diabetes is caused by insufficient secretion and / or insulin action. That pancreatic cells are destroyed (insulin-dependent diabete in young patients) or depleted by too rich diet and genetic predisposition ( mellitus diabete adult subject), and lack of insulin prevents the proper passage of sugar from the blood to the tissues. Blood glucose then remains too high after meals.
Diagnosis of diabetes
The normal blood glucose level is less than 1.10 g / l fasting and less than 1.40 g / l after a meal. Diabetes is defined by fasting blood glucose greater than 1.26 g / l twice. Glycosuria is the presence of glucose in urine. It occurs when the blood glucose is above 60g / l. Between these two situations, there is an intermediate position to indicate a strong predisposition to become diabetic.