Dandruff affects over 50% of the population. The persons concerned then have one idea in mind: to get rid of. What causes dandruff? How to treat? Julien Wintenberger, communications manager at Procter & Gamble and Marine Larnaud, Brand Manager for Head & Shoulders, answer our questions about this matter.
What is dandruff scalp?
dandruff scalp skin is composed of two layers: the epidermis and dermis. It renews itself about every 28 days through the formation of new skin cells that will remove dead cells by pushing them out of the skin.
Dandruff appears when a fungus called Malassezia (not contagious) proliferates and causes a disruption of the cell renewal. The cycle then goes from 28 days to about 5 days. Dead cells do not have the time to detach progressively, they cling to each other and are concentrated in the form of scales (thin skin flakes from the outermost layer of the epidermis on the surface of leather scalp), and become what is known as dandruff.
Dry dandruff or oily dandruff?
Dry dandruff: Malassezia feeds mainly on sebum produced by the scalp. It dries faster and thus rejects dry dandruff-like small snowflakes.
Oily dandruff: the fungus pump sebum nature reserve of the scalp and causes the appearance of oily dandruff say, more difficult to treat. They have a yellowish color and cling to the hair roots by forming sticky packets. Oily dandruff are larger than the dry dandruff. They can also facilitate bacterial growth and cause itching or hair loss.
What causes dandruff?
CAUSES GENETIC OR MEDICAL
Hormonal disorder (puberty, pregnancy, menopause …)
Some medical treatments
Unsuitable hair products
Alcohol and tobacco
Too aggressive hair care (coloring, blow-drying, heat excessive hair dryer …)
Wearing a helmet or a cap extended
The treatments against dandruff
There are various anti-dandruff treatments tailored to each type of hair and boldness, explains Julien Wintenberger, communications manager at Procter & Gamble.
SHAMPOOS AND CARE dandruff
Antidandruff shampoos and scalp care process by regulating the excess or lack of sebum and slowing the proliferation of the fungus.
INGREDIENTS TO CHOOSE:
Zinc pyrithione. This is an excellent antifungal agent (to fight fungi) and antibacterial. An ionized form of zinc pyrithione (as in Head & Shoulders shampoos) is even better, because it is compatible with the agents necessary to care for every hair type (dry, fine, colored …).
Coal tar. This antiproliferative slows the abnormal production of dermal cells.
Sulfur or salicylic acid. These keratolytic active dissolve scales peeling off and removing the keratin layer on the surface of the skin.
Using a 2 in 1 shampoo without sulfates (too aggressive detergent) is ideal, Marine advises Larnaud, Brand Manager for Head & Shoulders.
Good to know: the films are located at the hairline and using an anti-dandruff shampoo can damage the tips. Remember to moisturize them with daily care such as a conditioner or oil. If you have dry dandruff, you can make a nourishing mask once a week throughout the hair.
THE DRUG SHAMPOO AND CONTRACTORS
A dermatologist may possibly prescribe lotions containing corticosteroids, but only for very severe pathologies such as psoriasis (for more information, read our dossier on psoriasis).
PLANTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTS
Some plants can be very effective against dandruff. Rosemary has antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Propolis, a honey derivative, is known for its antiseptic and antibacterial properties. (see our selection of beauty products honey).
Many essential oils also used to treat dandruff naturally. Among them, the essential oil of tea tree cleanses and soothes the scalp, sage regulates excess oil and eucalyptus is a very good anti-inflammatory.
NB: we must respect the right dosages and do not improvise chemist, otherwise aggravate the situation and appear even more problems with dandruff. It is necessary to seek advice from a specialist before using plant extracts or essential oils.
VITAMINS AND SUPPLEMENTS
Some food supplements and vitamins can also help get rid of it. Prefer vitamin A (eggs, dairy products), vitamin B6 (whole grains, salmon and bananas) and vitamin E (fatty fish, hazelnuts and almonds). Also draw the trace elements side. Selenium, for example, has an antioxidant effect and enables the body to produce an enzyme (with the help of vitamin E) which protects the cell membranes against oxidation caused by free radicals. They are mostly found in Brazil nuts in or canned tuna.
Our tips to avoid it
Do “mistreat” more your hair: it mass and rinsed gently, you comb or brush it gently.
Always rinse your hair thoroughly with warm water and finish with a jet of cold water.
Remember to regularly wash your comb or brush.
Limit maximum use of styling gels, sprays or lacquers, as well as helmet or a cap.
Space out the time between perming, straightening and Stains (once a month).
Be sure to find (or keep) a balanced diet, not too rich nor too acidic.