The basic information of diabetes
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The basic information of diabetes

Diabetes is a really   futile disease, and everybody needs to get a clue  about the type of diabetes , its own symptoms, and how we can treat it in approriate way.

The first type of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes is a disease caused by lack of insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by cells of the pancreas. It reduces the amount of sugar in the blood. When these cells are destroyed, there is more production of insulin so the body is subjected to prolonged hyperglycaemia. This is what is known as Type 1 diabetes, a disease that appears in childhood.

The symptoms of diabetes:

10% of diabetics in France are type 1, or about 150,000 people.

Diabetes is defined by a higher fasting blood glucose 1.26 g / L (or 7 mmol / L) or by a blood glucose above 2 g / L (or 11 mmol / L) without fasting.

The treatment

In the case of type 1 diabetes as the body does not produce insulin, then one must inject himself. With injections of insulin, while type 1 diabetic can lead a healthy and active life. Conversely, the extended outage of insulin causes a phenomenon of diabetic ketoacidosis.

There are various insulins. Some are said to rapid effect (within 10 minutes), other long-acting (15 to 24 hours depending on insulin) and other intermediate action (3-4 hours). Depending on the insulin used will require from 2 to 4 injections per day to control blood glucose.


The diet is very important for diabetics who need to focus on foods with a low glycemic index. The concept of glycemic index compares the hyperglycaemic power to portions of foods containing the same weight of carbohydrates. This index is the basis of GI diet which recommends choosing low GI carbs of – cereals, starchy … so they do not cause too sharp a rise in blood sugar.

The second type of diabetes:

Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes secret insulin but the body remains insensitive (called insulin resistance).

This diabetes usually appears around age 50 but we see that this disease occurs in patients younger and younger. The onset of type 2 diabetes is partly influenced by genetics but lifestyle is also important: not to practice sport, eat too much or too fat and too sweet and being overweight are factors of disease onset.

The symptoms of diabetes:

In France, 90% of diabetics are type 2 diabetes, more than two million people.

Type 2 diabete wreaks havoc in rich countries and in poor. 180 million people are affected worldwide and  who plans by 2030 to double the number of cases.

The treatment

Manage your diabete requires strict lifestyle: healthy diet, weight control and physical exercise may be sufficient. Otherwise medicines called oral anti exist.


Diet plays a major role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabete should be especially attentive to the choice of carbohydrates and focus on foods with a low GI. Physical activity is also essential in particular to avoid being overweight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

What to do in case of hypoglycaemia?
Hypoglycemia occurs when blood sugar drops to a level below 0.50 g / L (2.5 mmol / L). This condition is manifested by various symptoms such as sweating, trembling, dizziness, paleness. Hypoglycemia is felt differently in different individuals. The important thing is to learn to recognize the warning signs. By prolonged hypoglycemia, it is possible to lose consciousness. That is why as soon as you feel that your blood sugar is low, stop all activity and eat or drink something sweet.

What to do in case of hyperglycaemia?
Hyperglycemia occurs when blood glucose levels rise above 2.7 g / l (15 mmol / L). Most often this happens after a big meal or when medications oblivion. If hyperglycemia, you feel a frequent need to urinate and have a feeling of hunger. Likewise, you may feel tired, have blurred vision or have cramps.

Complications of diabetes

Diabete significantly reduces life expectancy. A man who became diabetic at the age of 40 years lost on average 12 years of life. In women, diabetes steals 15 years of life …

The risk of cardiovascular disease is diabetic 3 times higher than that of a non-diabetic person of the same age.

In addition, diabete and the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. After 15 years, 10% of diabetics suffer from visual impairment and 2% are blind.


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