The main informations about vaccination
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The main informations about vaccination

Vaccination main info
Three million children are saved each year through immunization, one million by the only vaccination against measles. This is much more than the action of drugs on reducing child mortality.

Discover through clear and precise information the main vaccination: BCG, DT-Polio, pneumococcal, MMR and vaccines against pertussis, haemophilus B, hepatitis B, influenza, typhoid and meningitis meningitis.

Baby vaccine BCG is no longer compulsory for children as they enter school until 6 years. But it remains indicated for children at risk: those who live in certain regions (Ile-de-France, Guyana and in Mayotte), or in an environment exposed to TB (migrants, precarious situation). In these cases, it can be practiced from birth.

In young children, BCG vaccine no longer takes place using the plastic applicator provided with nets spikes (the famous ring). It now is an intradermal injection. This can cause slight induration at the injection site followed by a local lesion that may ulcerate some weeks later and heal after a few months. BCG generally causes no fever or impaired general condition. Your doctor will tell you whether or not you should apply a dressing and you can bathe the child.

Diphtheria – Tetanus – Poliomyelitis

Under the 2015 vaccination schedule, the primary immunization of infants with two injections given at 2 and 4 months, followed by a booster at age 11 months. Subsequent reminders are recommended at the age of 6 years, with a combined vaccine containing the acellular pertussis valence (Ca) with the tetanus and diphtheria components at normal concentration (DTCaPolio), then between 11 and 13 years, with a combined vaccine containing reduced doses of diphtheria toxoid and pertussis antigens (DTCaPolio).

The primary series (two injections followed by a booster at age 11 months) is mandatory in children.

Reminders until the age of 13 years are required for polio. Subsequently, reminders of adults are now recommended to fixed ages of 25, 45 and 65, then at 75, 85 years, etc. (interval of ten years from 65 years, given immunosenescence), using a combined vaccine tetanus, polio and diphtheria reduced dose of tetanus (DTP). At the age of 25, will be associated to the valence reduced dose pertussis (Ca) in adults who have not received vaccination against pertussis in the last five years (DTCaPolio).

A febrile reaction is common after the vaccine. You can administer the child a antithermic about three hours after vaccination. In case of significant febrile reaction, the usual drugs against fever and cooling are necessary and sufficient.

You may find instead of a vaccine injection subcutaneous nodule. This red and painful lump, without gravity, is common with vaccines “adsorbed”, the injection is intramuscular or subcutaneous and regardless of its location (buttock, thigh, shoulder, etc.). Indeed, the adsorbent (alumina hydrate, calcium phosphate) improves the effectiveness of the vaccine, but behaves like a true foreign body against which the body defends itself by a local reaction. Do not incriminate the doctor who would improperly mixed suspension or poorly practiced injection. The pharmacist is also not responsible for the sale of a so-called “bad batch” … In case of painful local reaction, your pediatrician will advise you to apply a product.

Allergic reactions are possible. The fear of an allergic reaction should not prevent vaccination against such serious diseases. Your doctor will however take important precautions for reminders.

These vaccines are generally associated with those against pertussis, Haemophilus B and hepatitis B. Formulas tetra (DTP + pertussis), Quinta (DTP + Hib + pertussis) or hexavalent (+ DTP + Hib + pertussis hepatitis B ) vaccines are now available.

Whooping cough

Vaccination against pertussis is practiced with the acellular vaccine combined with other valences. Under the 2015 vaccination schedule, the primary immunization of infants with two injections two months apart (at the age of 2 and 4 months), followed by a booster advanced age of 11 months. A pertussis booster is recommended at the age of 6 years with a diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine dose (DTCaPolio). This reminder will strengthen vaccine protection of first-children vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccine (which replaced the whole-cell vaccine in 2006) and future birth cohorts that will now be vaccinated according to the new “2 + 1 scheme”. This reminder, added to improve vaccination coverage among adults that should help simplify the immunization schedule and strengthening the strategy of cocooning (recommendation of vaccination in adults likely to become parents in the months or years ahead and in the family environment of a pregnant woman), should help to reduce the circulation of bacteria in the entourage of infants and, ultimately, their indirect protection.

The recall, planned since 1998 between 11 and 13 years, will be performed at the 3rd reminder diphtheria, tetanus and polio, with a reduced vaccine doses of diphtheria toxoid and pertussis antigens (DTCaPolio). Children do not receive a pertussis booster at the age of 6 years will receive DTCaPolio vaccine between 11 and 13 years.

Complementing the strategy called cocooning, pertussis catching up with the quadrivalent vaccine will be offered DTCaPolio in adults who have not received vaccination against pertussis in the last five years, during diphtheria-tetanus recall Polio set at the age of 25 years. There is currently no recommendations for administering more than one DTCaPolio quadrivalent vaccine dose in adults.

Haemophilus B

Haemophilus (Pfeiffer bacillus) was in charge every year a thousand serious infections (meningitis, epiglottitis, etc.) in children under 5 years in France. Mortality was high and the frequency of major sequelae (mental retardation, hydrocephalus, deafness, blindness, paralysis …).

The vaccine genetically engineered against haemophilus is used in France for several years. Under the 2015 immunization schedule, vaccination of infants with two injections given at 2 and 4 months, followed by a booster at age 11 months.

This vaccination is recommended for all children, in combination with the diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and polio ± hepatitis B. A vaccine catch-up can be done until the age of 5 years.

Pneumococcus

Vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate 13-valent vaccine is recommended for all children under 2 years depending on the vaccination schedule consisting of two injections at two-month intervals (the first injection from the age of 2 months) and a Recall now at the age of 11 months, according to the immunization schedule in 2015 the infant.

Measles, mumps, rubella

In France, measles is not always so benign disease that opinion wants to believe it. The vaccine is well tolerated and its complications are rare compared to those of natural measles.

Rubella is a mild disease in children, but extremely serious in pregnant women.

Mumps is a mild disease but there may be serious complications such as meningitis, deafness, orchitis and infertility.

All children, at the age of 24 months should have received two doses of trivalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR). The second vaccination is not a recall, acquired immunity after a first vaccination is long lasting. This is actually a catch for children who have not seroconverted to one or more antigens at the first vaccination.
The first dose is recommended at age 12 months. According to the immunization schedule in 2015, the second dose is recommended for all, between 16 and 18 months. The second dose may, however, continue to be administered early, provided you follow a one-month interval between the two doses.

Assuming that the second dose could not be completed during the second year, it can be given later.

People born since 1980 should have received a total of two doses of trivalent vaccine, respecting a minimum period of one month between the two doses, whatever vis-à-vis the three diseases history. In fact, the vaccine protects against the three diseases. People who presented one of these diseases are usually not protected against the other two and administer a live attenuated vaccine to an already immunized person has no disadvantage due to inactivation of the vaccine virus by pre-existing antibodies.

Hepatitis B

The HCSP recommends that vaccination against hepatitis B continues to apply in priority to all infants at 2, 4 and 11 months. It also recommends that the catch-up vaccination against hepatitis B should be continued in children and adolescents up to the age of 15 years. Every child or young person is under 16 years, not previously vaccinated should be offered vaccination against hepatitis B during a medical consultation or prevention. In this context, for teens 11-15 years of age, a simplified diagram two separate injections of six months may be used.

For infants whose parents prefer that vaccination against hepatitis B is made simultaneously with other vaccines, the use of a hexavalent combination vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular vaccine), poliomyelitis (inactivated vaccine), Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B enables their realization in a single injection at ages 2, 4 and 11 months, according to the new immunization schedule.

 

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